Finally, the clinical presentation of the disease currently uses clinical specifiers to describe ASD Lord et. According to scientific study, there are three types of genetic associations of ASD. The first is the familial aggregation of autism common in the siblings of affected ones, and the second category is the genetic combination of other conditions present in the family members of the afflicted children Lord et.
The third kind of genetic association involves the connection with specific conditions of recognized genetic composition Yuen et. For those whose diagnosis is missed by that age, the disease becomes noticeable when parents or educators detect anomalies based on how the children play, socialize, and communicate. Diagnosing adults with ASD is difficult because some of the symptoms usually overlap with those of mental disorders such as ADHD and schizophrenia Volkmar, p.
Diagnosis in children occurs in two stages namely: This process occurs during the well-child check-ups stage in growth. Parents are encouraged to visit pediatricians or early childhood health care physicians for checkups. Guardians are also urged to take their children for screening at an earlier stage if any of the risk factors are mentioned. The toddlers who display growth problems at this stage are referred to the next screening phase. In this step, doctors, developmental healthcare physicians, and other health specialties experienced in ADS take part in observing the children.
The developmental pediatrician has extensive knowledge on child growth, while the psychologist and psychiatrist deal with the brain development aspect. A speech or language pathologist specializes in detecting communication difficulties. The evaluation includes determining the cognitive abilities, language proficiency, and age-appropriate skills for normal daily functioning.
In other cases, additional blood and auditory tests will be conducted because ASD has the chance of occurring alongside other learning disorders. In older children, the disease is diagnosed mostly after they start school. In this setting, the evaluation is conducted by specialists in special education, who refer the children to healthcare professionals.
They may also display a difficulty in understanding humor, sarcasm, and figures of speech, and have trouble forming friendships or bonding with their peers. In the case of adults, most of them make a personal assessment and visit the appropriate physician for diagnosis or referral for an ADS test.
The specialists also assess their growth and development history for accurate diagnosis. In most cases, the physicians also interview close family members or associates.
A case study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ASD among school going children aged between 6 and 17 in the United States using data collected from the three bodies Blumberg et. The results indicated that the primary reason for the increase in ASD cases was due to late diagnosis of children whose condition was previously not recognized Blumberg et. Essay on Autism Spectrum Disorder. Harvey Mudd College Type of paper: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Developmental disorders These are a group of psychological conditions that manifest people from childhood, causing impairment in selective parts of the body. Specifically, it has been found that children with ASD have lower abundances of fermentative bacteria, low overall bacterial diversity, and higher levels of the toxin-producing Clostridium species Finegold, It is this microbial imbalance that researchers hypothesize may contribute to ASD behavioral symptoms.
Many parents of children with regressive-onset ASD have reported noticing the onset of social and behavioral changes characteristic of the disorder following repeated courses of antibiotics, accompanied by diarrhea Bolte, It is from this observation that it was proposed that the disruption of intestinal microbiota caused by the antibiotics triggers the release of toxins by the clostridia. This hypothesis has been supported by a number of studies.
One such study found that children with ASD had a 10 fold higher level of Clostridium than healthy controls Finegold, Another prominent study was conducted by Sandler , in which children with ASD were given 6 weeks of oral vancomycin, an antibiotic that is known to work against Clostridium. At the end of treatment, participants were found to have significant improvement in both neurobehavioral as well as GI symptoms, supporting the idea that Clostridium is a main underlying cause of ASD Sandler, However, after treatment ended symptoms returned, proving vancomycin treatment to not be a viable opportunity for therapy development Sandler, The bacteria Sutterella is also hypothesized to play a role in ASD.
These findings suggest that Sutterella is a major component of the intestinal microbiota of children with autism and GI dysfunction and is absent in children with only GI dysfunction.
In addition to this increased prevalence of Sutterella, Kang, found reduced abundance of the species Prevotella in the intestinal microbiota of children with ASD. Prevotella is a bacteroidete, which are thought to be associated with good GI health Kang, Therefore, this decrease in Prevotella combined with the increase in Sutterella suggests that ASD may result from a decrease in good bacteria and an increase in harmful bacteria. Unlike Clostridia, no mechanism for ASD has been suggested.
It is known that the flow of substances between the intestines and the bloodstream is maintained by tight junctions Hollander, The intestinal microbiota are essential to the maintenance of these junctions and therefore to the integrity of the intestinal barrier Hsiao, Leaky gut has been linked to a wide range of intestinal disorders Fasano, This increased intestinal permeability likely allows for the passage of bacteria and their toxins into the bloodstream from the intestines that lead to immune activation.
One such compound that leaks from the intestines to the bloodstream is bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide LPS. LPS is a part of the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria Alexander, LPS in the bloodstream will elicit both an immunologic and inflammatory response Qin, This response is characterized by increased systemic cytokines Qin, Cytokines are cell-signaling molecules that facilitate cell-to-cell communication during immune responses.
While cytokines are necessary for normal neurodevelopment, changes in their activities may negatively affect this development, as may be the case in ASD. Children with autism have been found to have increased levels of cytokines Ashwood, These elevated cytokine levels have been associated with characteristic behaviors, including poor communication and impaired social communication Onore, In postmortem studies of individuals with ASD, neuroinflammation in the brain has been a consistent finding Li, ; Morgan, One study Vargas, analyzed the autopsies and CSF of individuals with ASD and found evidence of excess microglial activation and increased cytokines compared to healthy controls.
As discussed previously, microglia are the immune defense of the CNS, but they are also crucial in synaptogenesis and pruning Bessis, ; Paolicelli, It is from this evidence that it is now hypothesized that this microglial deficit present in ASD results in weak synaptic transmission, decreased functional brain connectivity, deficits in social interactions, and increased repetitive behavior characteristic of ASD Zhan, Specifically, a patient first receives 14 days of oral vancomycin treatment followed by hours fasting with bowel cleansing.
Repopulation of the gut microbiota occurs by administering a high initial dose of Standardized Human Gut Microbiota SHGM Hamilton, either orally or rectally followed by daily, lower maintenance oral doses with a stomach acid suppressant for weeks.
In the study published by Kang et al in , participants were followed for an additional 8 weeks after treatment ended, to determine if treatment effects were temporary or long-lasting Kang, First, GI symptoms were significantly improved for abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea and constipation.
In addition, ASD-related behavior was also improved. Most importantly, it was found that the GI symptom improvement as well as ASD-related improvement were both present 8 weeks after treatment ended. In terms of intestinal microbiota, it was found that bacterial diversity increased in children with ASD and remained higher 8 weeks post treatment.
Overall, this study supports the validity of MMT while also showing that it is safe and well tolerated in children with ASD. This finding that a change in intestinal microbiota of children with ASD towards that of a neurotypical child serves to support the hypotheses that intestinal microbiota are at least partially responsible for GI and ASD symptoms.
It is through an understanding of the gut-brain axis, the relationship between the microbiome and the immune system, and the connection between the microbiome, the immune system, and the brain in ASD that researchers can begin to push for new therapies and treatments that bring about long-term, significant results in system improvement and long term change in the ASD community.
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Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as disorders characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Autism begins in very early brain development, although it doesn’t usually surface in children until the age of two or three years old.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It is a bio-neurological developmental disability usually appearing before the age of three, best known for impairing a child's ability to communicate and interact.
Autism Spectrum Disorders Essay Examples. 15 total results. The Reelin Expression and Its Link to Autism A Study on the Impact on Youth Sport Programs on Improving the Social and Mental Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. 4, words. 11 pages. The Quotes That Related to Christopher in The Curious Incident of the Dog . Introduction Autism is the main form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a developmental disorder that is manifested in problems with communication, impairment of social functioning, and repetitive behaviours.
Sample Essay Paper on Autism Spectrum Disorder INTRODUCTION Autism spectrum disorder is a brain related disorder that influences strongly how an individual relates socially with others. Autism Spectrum Disorder According to the Center for Disease and Control and Prevention, approximately 1% of children globally suffer from autism (McPartland, Law & Dawson, p). In the United States only, an estimated figure is given of 1 out of almost 70 births in the country.