Therefore the effects of climate change are a threat to the farmers. The extreme climate variation is likely to worsen as well as many existing environmental problems including soil erosion, deforestation, drought, over- grazing and deforestation Glopolis Land Grabs Over the past few years, there has been a surge of interest in foreign investments in agriculture in many African countries Glopolis The increases pressure and competition over land, including water and other natural resources in rural areas may hinder opportunity of the poor and hungry people from accessing these natural resources Glopolis Land is not only an essential commodity for food production ,but an economic asset and it represents historical ,cultural and spiritual issue to local population Glopolis Population growth is often considered a major cause of food shortage in the globe.
Population pressure has become a factor in accelerating food insecurity in situations where all accessible land is fully under cultivation and failure to improve upon the old methods of cultivation and lastly, the opportunity for alternative employment are absent Balcha In Ethiopia, the population growth is to the point where its demand has begun to exceed the sustainable yields of local forests, grasslands or crop land it directly or indirectly consumes the resource base itself Balcha This reduces food production and incomes, triggering a downward spiral in a process of demographic trap Balcha The impact of war, a good example would be the border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea in , has majorly affected the rural economy and the rural environment Balcha Some of the negative impacts include: Forced conscription of young men into the army disrupts the productive capacities of rural households Balcha It has been also observed that soldiers tend to loot and plunder the resource of the rural population in order to maintain themselves Balcha Analysis of Food aid in Ethiopia Ethiopia has been receiving a large amount of food aid for the last few decades Gelan The most common ways of receiving food aid to famine- stricken areas has been through imports and distributing it freely to the needy population Gelan This method has saved quite a number of people in regions where drought has often escalated into catastrophic famines Gelan However, according to Moyo , aid is slowly retrogressing the economic growth of developing countries.
The volume of food aid donated to Ethiopia is about , tons of cereals per year Gelan There has been two major areas of concern in the area of food aid in Ethiopia over the differences between the composition of food aid and that domestic production Gelan To begin with, large proportions of food aid to Ethiopia has been cereals.
Disincentive effects may result from targeted food aid for various reasons PANE The poor may receive more food aid than they need and sell the excess on to the local market PANE Alternatively, targeted food aid, although intended only for the poor, may be distributed to the non-poor who would have purchased or grown food PANE The disincentive to the staple food producer is very real and may cause local farmers to move to other activities other than food production as the market shrinks PANE The end result is decreased local production and, unless the country experiences economic growth, which allows it to import food, it will become dependent on food aid PANE Imports Barrett et al found that food aid displaces food imports but has little effect on food production.
Evidence from the study shows a negative correlation between US programme food aid and contemporaneous imports by recipient countries PANE The study also indicates that programme food aid from the US displaces imports by recipient countries in the short term, leading to short-term dependence on programme food aid PANE Programme food aid has been found to increase imports to recipient countries in the long run PANE Economic Impact The economic impact of food aid is based on the fact that introduction of more grain into the market decreases the price of grain PANE If food aid is sold in the open market at a market-clearing price, the price of cereals will fall.
Some literature argues that the other possible economic impact of food aid depends on the marketing policy and production structure of the recipient country.
The economic impact of food aid can be affected by government actions PANE The government tends to regard food markets as having such strategic importance as to call for different kinds of control mechanisms PANE The Ethiopian government has several policy tools at their disposal for influencing the effects of food aid, including segmenting of markets; stabilization of prices; using counterpart funds to establish a floor price or to subsidize input prices; and using food aid as balance of payments support PANE Each of these may decrease the disincentive effect PANE Estimated population in is Average life expectancy is 54 years.
Political, economic and environmental adversities combine to make Malawi struggle with many aspects of basic human needs, such as health, education and food security ICEIDA These social phenomena are linked because poorer households cannot buy sufficient food for their needs and cannot get suitable income from their own agricultural production and suffer from malnutrition in the long run Jere In response to the crises, the level of global food aid to Malawi has increased.
Causes of Food Shortage in Malawi In the context of food insecurity, food supplies are seldom in Malawi due to various reasons. Natural and Human-made Disasters Food stability and availability in Malawi has been affected by disasters in terms of both production and income Jere However, floods and drought are the most frequent disasters which have cause several consequences: Therefore the government has to take an active role to protect the crop Jere For example by participating in maize marketing by establishing food programs.
This grain reserve was formed mainly due to the fact that maize production was highly variable and relied on one growing season per year. This made it vulnerable to problems such as drought, floods, macro-economic hardships, high transport costs for importing maize and insufficient private sector involvement in the maize market Jere However, during the previous food aid intervention in Malawi showed that due to large flows of food aid, maize prices fell thus it had a negative impact on the local production Jere Food Markets Food aid has created food disincentives for local food producers by flooding the market and depressing prices Jere According to Rates , the main factor that hinders maize trade in Malawi is the market distortion rising from increasing food aid.
The government must ensure that the approach to food aid does not lower maize production Jere The availability of free humanitarian food aid supplies reduces the demand for commercial maize, resulting in unintended excess stocks of commercial maize Jere Procurement of Food Aid from Local and Regional Markets When the food is available in some parts of the country, local purchases of food aid do not increase overall supply in the country.
Price and production disincentives and import displacement effects are removed Jere Dietary Habits and Food Preferences Maize being the staple food, most of the food aid is in form of maize. The rest of the food aid is form of Sorghum, millet, beans and vegetable cooking oil Jere The vegetables are normally in short supply during floods or drought. Unfortunately, the food aid packages are short of other kinds of food thus does not suite the needs of the population appropriately.
Recommendation If sub-Saharan Africa is to overcome its poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition in a sustainable manner, the national government has to make the overriding goal of development. Designing and implementing a strategy for broad-based sustainable growth development requires national capacities that are beyond those available in most countries of the region. They are not adequate substitutes for sound development strategies and policies implemented by African countries themselves.
The African countries need to facilitate effective and efficient private sector activities including agricultural input and output markets and ensure investment in the production of public goods. Your first day at a new job can be a daunting experience that could possibly be likened to first date jitters. Will they like me? What should I wear? What if I come across as too eager? These three little words carry so much weight and you can really hurt your partner by not responding back.
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