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Marijuana/ Medical Marijuana term paper 10796

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❶The only way this can take place is even further documentation and government regulation regarding restriction, proper training of medical professionals and more empirical studies to determine which cases should be considered for treatment. Also, most of the studies had fewer than patients.

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Marijuana-Based Drugs
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Recently, Phyto-cannabinoids have been demonstrated as providing anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects in animal and human research efforts. Subjects received a daily dose of 2. Daily pain recordings by the patient, experimentally induced pain, and axon reflex flare by doppler-laser.

This pilot research effort demonstrated that a generalized statement that D9-THC is an analgesic drug cannot be made. The unaffected electrically induced axon reflex flare, but decreased pain perception, suggests a central mode of action of the cannabinoid. Skrabek et-althe year of The Journal of Pain 9: As nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated, it may be a useful adjunct for pain management in Fibromyalgia.

DATA of a randomized controlled trial. Ware et-althe year of We evaluated the safety and efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on sleep disturbance in Fibromyalgia - FM- a disease characterized by widespread chronic pain and insomnia.

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, active-control, equivalence crossover trial to compare nabilone - 0. Subjects received each drug for 2 wk with a 2-wk washout period. Secondary outcomes included pain, mood, quality of life, and adverse events. Thirty-one patients were enrolled and twenty nine completed the trial. Although sleep was improved by both amitriptyline and nabilone, nabilone was superior to amitriptyline. Nabilone was marginally better on the restfulness but not on wakefulness.

No effects on pain, mood, or quality of life were observed. AEs were mostly mild to moderate and were more frequent with nabilone. The most common AEs for nabilone were dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth. Low-dose nabilone given once daily at bedtime may be considered as an alternative to amitriptyline. Longer trials are needed to determine the duration of effect and to characterize long-term safety.

Fiz et-althe year of Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. The amount and frequency of marijuana use differed among patients. The use of marijuana was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms.

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy New cannabimimetic agents have been associated with fewer systemic adverse effects than deltatetrahydrocannabinol, including the recent development of marijuana medicinal extracts for sublingual use - approved in Canada- and have had promising findings for analgesia in initial human trials.

Several synthetic cannabinoids have also been studied in humans, including cannabinoid agonists available on the international market. Cannabinoids provide a potential approach to pain management with a novel therapeutic target and mechanism. Chronic pain often requires a polypharmaceutical approach to management, and cannabinoids are a potential addition to the arsenal of treatment options. But it was in the s that its potential as an analgesic began to be studied leading eventually to the discovery of D9THC understand how d9THC affects the nervous system, and in the year of a cannabinoid receptor, CB1, was identified in the brain.

These chemicals - the brain's equivalent of d9THC - are now collectively known as endocannabinoids. The authors created an experimental model using rodents, to which they applied painful stimuli involving a non-opioid pathway.

After the authors gave the animals rimonabant, a compound that blocks Cannabinoid-CB1 receptors, they observed that the rats no longer exhibited an antinociceptive effect; that is, the animals felt more pain. Moreover, when the rats were made tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids - by treating the animals chronically with a compound that competes with cannabinoids- the rats began to feel pain again.

In the midbrain, 2-AG concentrations increased 2 minutes after a painful stimulus. This increase was followed at 7— 15 minutes by the appearance of anandamide. Anandamide and 2-AG therefore have an apparent role in stress-induced relief of pain. Wallace et-althe year of Experimental pain models have been used to assess the analgesic efficacy in normal volunteers.

This research effort sought to evaluate the effects of three doses of smoked marijuana on the pain and cutaneous hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in healthy volunteers.

A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover design methodology was conducted in fifteen healthy volunteers - four women, eleven men.. Capsaicin was injected into opposite forearms five and forty-five minutes after drug exposure and pain, hyperalgesia and side effects were assessed.

Five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was no effect on capsaicin induced pain at any dose. However, forty-five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was a significant decrease in capsaicin induced pain with the medium dose and a significant increase in capsaicin induced pain with the higher dose. There was a dose dependent increase in the subjective highness score reported after marijuana exposure, which persisted into the late time course.

There was no significant difference in the neuropsychological tests before and after marijuana exposure.

This research effort suggests that there is a therapeutic window of analgesia-pain killer for smoked marijuana with lower doses decreasing pain and higher doses increasing pain. Further research efforts are required to determine this therapeutic window and time course of analgesia. Cox et-althe year of European Journal of Pharmacology Less is known about phyto cannabinoid and opioid interactions involved in mechanical nociception and in chronic inflammatory pain models, such as Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritic model.

This is considered the best type of trial because it compares a drug to another drug, or to a placebo a "fake" treatment. Also, most of the studies had fewer than patients. He's a psychiatrist at the Mayo Clinic and author of a review of medical marijuana research. Based on medical science, it seems possible that marijuana-based treatments could be developed for some conditions; but federal restrictions make it hard for the research to advance, Bostwick says.

A series of studies allowed by the DEA came to a conclusion similar to Bostwick's. The studies also showed that inhaling marijuana through a vaporizer or a spray was a better way to deliver it than by smoking.

Among the unanswered questions about medical marijuana is the risk to users. Another drug, Sativex , is in clinical trials in the U. It is a combination of chemicals from the marijuana herb and is sprayed into the mouth. Sativex is approved in more than 20 countries to treat muscle spasms from MS and cancer pain. No single organization tracks all research studies of medical marijuana and marijuana-based drugs and herbs. The following review is a summary of controlled studies since Patients were less agitated and ate better after treatment.

Two animal studies show that chemicals in marijuana may help symptoms of some forms of autism. Several studies on animal and human cells and a small study on 9 people suggested THC and other cannabinoids chemicals derived from cannabis might slow the growth of brain cancer. Multiple lab studies in human cells have also shown the potential for them to slow other kinds of cancers, such as breast cancer and leukemia ; no studies in people have taken place.

More than 45 studies have looked at marijuana and pain related to chronic diseases such as cancer , diabetes , fibromyalgia , multiple sclerosis , HIV, rheumatoid arthritis , and spinal injuries. The studies have included smoked marijuana, along with herbal and man-made forms. The majority of the studies showed an improvement in pain relief in comparison to a placebo or to other traditional pain medications. About a quarter of the studies showed no improvement.

Personal stories and animal studies have shown that cannabidiol, one of the chemicals in cannabis, may help seizures in children with epilepsy. New York University just announced it will do a study of children with epilepsy and marijuana.

Some of the results included a reduction in bowel inflammation and reduced acid reflux. Further, some patients were able to retain more nutrients in their bodies, and the disease went into remission.

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Medical Cannabis Research Papers The latest in cannabis research: Dive deeper into the medical research on marijuana conducted by doctors and researchers and published in scientific journals. Cannabis as a Substitute for Prescription Drugs.

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Marijuana term papers (paper ) on Medical Marijuana: Medical Marijuana Since marijuana was discovered, it was smoked to get high and to cope with suffering medical conditions. Scientists are now rea. Term paper Medical Marijuana – Essay Example. Medical marijuana represents the parts of the hemp plant used as a doctor-recommended form of herbal remedy or medicine.

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