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Essay/Term paper: Multiple sclerosis


❶The increased inclusion of the family in support for the person with MS could facilitate the adjustment process. I hope to make MS more understanding in my paper.

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: An Autoimmune Disease of the Central Nervous System

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Research Paper on Multiple Sclerosis
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Development of MS is likely to be influenced by the interactions of a number of genes, each of. Additional studies are needed to specifically pinpoint which genes.

Finding the genes responsible for susceptibility to MS may lead to the development of new. Such research could also uncover the basic cause of the disease and. This would make it easier for physicians to tailor therapies. Another possible benefit may be the early diagnosis of people in families where one or more member. Many physicians believe that the earlier MS is diagnosed and treatment begun, the better the.

Symptoms of MS may be mild or severe, of long duration or short, and may appear in various. Complete or partial remission of symptoms,. Inflammatory problems of the optic nerve may be diagnosed as retrobulbar or optic neuritis. MS patients will have an attack of optic neuritis at some time or other and it will be the first symptom of MS in.

This has led to general recognition of optic neuritis as an early sign of MS, especially if. National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Most MS patients experience muscle weakness in their extremities and difficulty with coordination and. These symptoms may be severe enough to impair walking or. In the worst cases, MS can produce partial or complete paralysis. Most people with MS also exhibit paresthesias, transitory abnormal sensory feelings such as numbness,. Speech impediments, tremors, and dizziness are other frequent complaints.

Brunnscheiler ; National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Approximately half of all people with MS experience cognitive impairments such as difficulties with. In fact, they are often detectable only through comprehensive testing. Patients themselves may be. Brunnscheiler These deficits tend to become more apparent as the information to be processed becomes more. Fatigue may also add to processing difficulties. Scientists do not yet know whether altered cognition in.

MS reflects problems with information acquisition, retrieval, or a combination of both. Types of memory problems. Brunnscheiler In addition, about 10 percent of patients suffer from more severe psychotic disorders such as. Five percent may experience episodes of inappropriate euphoria and.

As the disease progresses, sexual dysfunction may become a problem. Bowel and bladder control may. In about 60 percent of MS patients, heat, whether generated by temperatures outside the body or by. In these cases, eradicating the heat eliminates. Some temperature-sensitive patients find that a cold bath may temporarily relieve their symptoms. The erratic symptoms of MS can affect the entire family as patients may become unable to work at the.

The emotional drain on both patient and family is immeasurable. Many patients do well with no therapy at all, especially since many. Until recently, the principal medications physicians used to treat MS were steroids possessing. Studies suggest that intravenous. While steroids do not affect the course of MS over time, they can reduce the duration and severity of.

The mechanism behind this effect is not known; one study suggests the medications work. One of the most promising MS research areas involves naturally occurring antiviral proteins known as. Two forms of beta interferon Avonex and Betaseron have now been approved by the Food and Drug. Administration for treatment of relapsing-remitting MS. A third form Rebif is marketed in Europe. When attacks do occur, they tend to be shorter and less severe. In addition, MRI scans suggest that beta.

Investigators speculate that the effects of beta interferon may be due to the drug's ability to correct an. Alpha interferon is also being studied as a. Scientists continue their extensive efforts to create new and better therapies for MS. Goals of therapy are. In conclusion, MS is a disease that is well known but poorly understood by the medical and nursing.

It has no known cure and the genes that are accountable for it have yet. The United States is capable of finding a cure for this disease; over the years, medical researchers. Not only time and money are needed to find a cure. Physicians use a variety of tests--electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, capillary. Demyelination ultimately results in nervous system scars, called. Also known as major. Gamma interferon is produced by immune system cells,. Alpha and beta interferon probably exert a suppressive effect on.

In MS, myelin is damaged through a process known as. When injected into laboratory animals,. MBP induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a chronic brain and. It causes rapid loss of vision and may cause pain upon. In MS, this condition primarily affects the lower limbs. T cells -- immune system cells that develop in the thymus gland. Transverse myelitis often remits spontaneously; however, severe or.

New England Journal of Medicine 29 Jan. Free essays on Health posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only. The progress, severity and specific symptoms of the disease can not be predicted; symptoms may range from tingling and numbness to paralysis and blindness. MS is a devastating disease because people live with its unpredictable physical and emotional effects for the rest of their lives.

In the United States there are approximately new cases diagnosed each week; MS is a common disease and not always caused by genetics. Therefore, I feel we all need to have a better understanding of this disease that has no cure yet. In my paper I will explain what MS is, who gets MS, what MS has to do with the metabolism, some new techniques being used to pinpoint genetic factors, what some of the symptoms of MS is, and some treatments for MS.

Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis MS is a progressive disabling illness that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord Bernard. Under normal conditions these nerve cells are surrounded by an insulating sheath made of fatty "myelin," which speeds the passage of nerve impulses.

In MS, this myelin sheath is inflamed or damaged, disrupting nerve impulses and leaving areas of scarring sclerosis. The disruption of nerve signals within the brain and spinal cord causes a variety of symptoms that may affect vision, sensation, and body movements.

MS is a life-long chronic disease diagnosed primarily in young adults who have a virtually normal life expectancy. Melvin No one knows exactly how many people have MS. It is believed that, currently, there are approximately , to , people in the United States with MS diagnosed by a physician.

Boyden This estimate suggests that approximately new cases are diagnosed each week. Also, MS is the most common nerve disease to develop in young persons after birth, and it affects over 1 million young adults worldwide. This is due to both the transitory nature of the disease and the lack of a specific diagnostic test--specific symptoms and changes in the brain must develop before the diagnosis is confirmed.

Health Central Although scientists have documented cases of MS in young children and elderly adults, symptoms rarely begin before age 15 or after age In general, women are affected at almost twice the rate of men; however, among patients who develop the symptoms of MS at a later age, the gender ratio is more balanced. Waxman To understand what is happening when a person has MS, it is first necessary to know a little about how the healthy immune system works. The immune system -- a complex network of specialized cells and organs -- defends the body against attacks by "foreign" invaders such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

It does this by seeking out and destroying the interlopers as they enter the body. Substances capable of triggering an immune response are called antigens. In order to have room for enough cells to match the millions of possible foreign invaders, the immune system stores just a few cells for each specific antigen.

When an antigen appears, those few specifically matched cells are stimulated to multiply into a full-scale army. Later, to prevent this army from overexpanding, powerful mechanisms to suppress the immune response come into play. T-cells, so named because they are processed in the thymus, appear to play a particularly important role in MS.

In order to recognize and respond to each specific antigen, each T cell's surface carries special receptor molecules for particular antigens. Antibodies typically interact with circulating antigens, such as bacteria, but are unable to penetrate living cells.

Chief among the regulatory T cells are those known as helper or inducer cells. Killer T cells, on the other hand, directly attack diseased or damaged body cells by binding to them and bombarding them with lethal chemicals called cytokines.

Kaser Since T cells can attack cells directly, they must be able to discriminate between "self" cells those of the body and "nonself" cells foreign invaders.

To enable the immune system to distinguish the self, each body cell carries identifying molecules on its surface. T cells likely to react against the self are usually eliminated before leaving the thymus; the remaining T cells recognize the molecular markers and coexist peaceably with body tissues in a state of self-tolerance.

Components of myelin such as myelin basic protein have been the focus of much research because, when injected into laboratory animals, they can precipitate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis EAE , a chronic relapsing brain and spinal cord disease that resembles MS.

The injected myelin probably stimulates the immune system to produce anti-myelin T cells that attack the animal's own myelin. It is possible that, in MS, components of the immune system get through the barrier and cause nervous system damage. It is possible that the immune response to viral infections may themselves precipitate an MS attack. In the past few years, scientists have developed a set of tools that gives them the ability to pinpoint the genetic factors that make a person susceptible to MS.

This work led to major advances in understanding diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. Scientists now believe that a person is susceptible to multiple sclerosis only if he or she inherits an unlucky combination of several genes.

Instead, scientists suspect that MS develops because of the influence of several genes acting together. The researchers are looking for patterns of genetic material that are consistently inherited by people with MS. These recognizable patterns are called "DNA markers. This process of moving closer to the gene until it is identified has to be repeated for each of the marker regions from the multiplex families. Melvin By , as many as 20 locations that may contain genes contributing to MS were identified, but no single gene was shown to have a major influence on susceptibility to MS.

Melvin Research will likely find that other, as yet unidentified, genes contribute to MS. After the location of each susceptibility gene is identified, the role that the gene plays in the immune system and neuralgic aspects of people with MS will have to be determined. Because the immune system is so involved in MS, many scientists think at least some of the susceptibility genes are related to the immune system.

Further indications that more than one gene is involved in MS susceptibility comes from studies of families in which more than one member has MS. Several research teams found that people with MS inherit certain regions on individual genes more frequently than people without MS.

Of particular interest is the human leukocyte antigen HLA or major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6. HLAs are genetically determined proteins that influence the immune system. Investigations in northern Europe and America have detected three HLAs that are more prevalent in people with MS than in the general population.

Studies of American MS patients have shown that people with MS also tend to exhibit these HLAs in combination--that is, they have more than one of the three HLAs--more frequently than the rest of the population. Furthermore, there is evidence that different combinations of the HLAs may correspond to variations in disease severity and progression.

Kaser Studies of families with multiple cases of MS and research comparing genetic regions of humans to those of mice with EAE suggest that another area related to MS susceptibility may be located on chromosome 5.

Other regions on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 11, 17, 19, and X have also been identified as possibly containing genes involved in the development of MS.

Hauser These studies strengthen the theory that MS is the result of a number of factors rather than a single gene or other agent. Development of MS is likely to be influenced by the interactions of a number of genes, each of which individually has only a modest effect.

MS has been considered a disease of the white matter, which is mostly myelin-covered axons. Recently, postmortem tissue studies and new imaging techniques have suggested that MS also attacks less-myelinated gray matter, first in the brain and now the spinal cord.

In an unexpected finding using a new imaging technique in a cross-sectional study of people with relapsing-remitting and progressive MS, gray matter tissue loss in the cervical spinal cord was the strongest correlate of disability Schlaeger et al. Also surprising was the relatively minor impact of white matter damage on disability, including lesions.

Led by Regina Schlaeger, M. To explore the link between inflammation and early neurodegeneration in MS, researchers turned to an imaging technique that measures glutamate, a neurotransmitter that helps us speak, among many other things, but can be toxic in large amounts. The problem in MS may be too much glutamate released by inflamed innate immune cells, compounded by oligodendrocytes and other glial cells bungling the job of sopping up the excess neurotransmitter, senior author Daniel Pelletier, M.

In a 5-year prospective study of people with MS and 42 healthy controls, the sustained elevation of glutamate in normal-appearing white matter preceded a cascade of detrimental effects. First, sustained higher glutamate predicted a higher rate of neuron and axon damage, as measured by the decline of N-acetylaspartate NAA. In turn, the investigators found that high ratios of glutamate to NAA forecast more brain volume loss over 3 years and worse clinical decline over 4 years Azevedo et al.

The drug, given to extend the lives of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, inhibits the release of glutamate and has other neuroprotective effects. Unfortunately, the clinical study showed that riluzole does not prevent progression of brain atrophy in early RRMS Waubant et al. For disclosures from the authors of the eight top papers, please consult the references below.

Skip to main content. News Synthesis 12 Feb Eight top papers showcase scientific progress in multiple sclerosis research in Redefining MS MS may need classifications beyond the standard relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, progressive relapsing, and primary progressive categories. Key open questions What future research is needed to better understand and define MS phenotypes? Might the additional classifications hint at the idea that MS is a family of diseases rather than a single disease?

Key open questions How does simvastatin work to reduce brain atrophy in progressive MS? Could people with progressive MS receive the same benefits from other cholesterol-lowering drugs? If so, do they fall into a subcategory of the newly proposed guidelines? How can patients and clinicians best decide between pegylated interferon and other treatment options?

Key open questions Will the quantitative anti-JCV antibody index be validated by other studies? Will other markers or following people over time improve the PML risk estimate for an individual on nataluzimab?

From Radiologically Isolated Syndrome to MS Early treatment is the new trend in MS care, born of a desire to ward off further relapses and cumulative damage to the central nervous system. Key open questions Does the damage to the spinal cord in MS start with the gray matter or the white matter, and are the mechanisms different? Is white matter inflammation and neurodegeneration confounding the imaging measures?

Imaging and Targeting Early Neurodegeneration To explore the link between inflammation and early neurodegeneration in MS, researchers turned to an imaging technique that measures glutamate, a neurotransmitter that helps us speak, among many other things, but can be toxic in large amounts. Key open questions Are there other aspects of the glutamate excitotoxicity pathway that could be targeted to protect neurons and axons?

What other drugs might work to limit the damaging cascade of excess glutamate? Multiple sclerosis in Progress in MS-classification, mechanisms and treatment.

Epub Jan Spinal cord grey matter loss correlates with disability in MS. Spinal cord gray matter atrophy correlates with multiple sclerosis disability. Spinal cord grey matter abnormalities are associated with secondary progression and physical disability in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. In vivo evidence of glutamate toxicity in multiple sclerosis. Immunoglobulin M oligoclonal bands:

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Multiple Sclerosis Research Papers delve into a sample of a paper ordered for an analysis of the degenerative disorder.

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Introduction Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelization disorder of the central nervous system and the spinal cord; which leads to patches of plaques in the regions.

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- This research paper, will discuss the pathophysiological, psychosocial, economic and cognitive effects which Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has on the affected individual, family and society. It will make mention of how a professional nurse would support the individual, the family/carer. View Multiple sclerosis Research Papers on for free.

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Health term papers (paper ) on Multiple Sclerosis A+ Research Paper : Introduction Multiple Sclerosis Stephanie **** Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that randomly attacks the ce. Term paper Incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the UK – a descriptive study in the General Practice Research Database I S Mackenzie, 1 S V Morant, 1 G A Bloomfield, .