Energy is produced from commercial sources like coal, petroleum, hydroelectric schemes as well as from non-commercial sources like cowdung, fuelwood and agriculture wastes. Per capital consumption of commercial energy is something used as an index of the economic advancement that a country as attained.
It is only one eight of the world average. Commercial energy accounts for a little over half of the total energy used in the country, the rest coming from non-commercial sources. Share of agriculture in commercial energy consumption has risen rapidly over the past two-and-a-half decades. Energy generation and environmental conservation are the twin issues arising from exploitative interaction of man with natural resources.
Report of the International Energy Agency contains a simple but remarkable statement: Now, what do mean by this? This means that conservation of a unit of energy is cheaper and environmentally more desirable than to generate an additional unit. For, it is estimated that generation of every additional kilowatt for one hour of energy requires an investment of Rs. Excessive utilization of coal and oil for generation of electricity leads to the multiple problems of acid rain, and rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
There are also political and economic implications like the increasing tension in the Persian Gulf, which is the major petroleum exporting area, and failing international competitiveness.
All these threaten to strangle the world economy in a stagnation. Let us see how some steps taken to resolve these complex problems have tangled the issues further. To reduce dependence on oil for generation of electricity by burning coal and oil, hydroelectric power stations and atomic energy stations were advocated. Huge dams can make substantial contributions to economic development in electricity-short developing countries like India, but as in any large-scale electricity generating option, there are trade-offs.
Electricity is by far the most expensive form in which an organization buys power. The fact that electricity is the only practical form of energy does not mean that it should be used without proper consideration.
While thermal savings are keenly monitored and can readily be measured, much less attention has been paid to the money that can be saved by attention to the design, specification and installation of electrical plant and power systems. The efficiency of electrical equipment has always been assumed to be high and the amount of electrical energy that is wasted in commercial and industrial environments is usually greatly underestimated and is often assumed to be unavoidable.
In fact, the efficiency of electrical equipment can be improved easily at low cost and because of the quantity of electrical energy used, this will yield substantial savings.
Once high-efficiency equipment has been selected, it is equally important to ensure that it is correctly rated. On the other hand, cables are least efficient when fully loaded, so generous rating of cables can substantially reduce running costs. Power losses in electrical equipment are due to the electrical resistance in conductors and losses in the magnetic material and occur primarily in motors, transformers and in all cabling.
The conductor losses are proportional to the resistance and the square of the current I 2 R losses and can be minimized by using the optimum size of conductor for the application. Magnetic losses can be reduced by the use of better materials and production methods. The available savings in energy costs are substantial and accrue over the whole of the life of the installation. Electrical energy is undisputedly the most vital element for industrial growth of any country.
India is one of the many developing countries, which is suffering from acute power shortages. Almost all the states of India are not able to manage the demand from the three main sectors, viz. The recent industrial growth due to economic reforms further worsened the situation. This results in exhaustion of fossil fuels and causes ecological imbalance.
Therefore, these is an ample opportunity of energy conservation in domestic, industrial and agriculture sector. There is a wide gap in the supply and demand of power in India and bridging the gap by installing new power stations is not going to take place in near future.
The other alternative is to conserve every watt of energy. Previously the power was subsidized in all the states of India and people mis used power liberally without worrying about efficiency of the appliances. Because of the economic reforms, the subsidy is being withdrawn in power sector in a phased manner throughout India and the power tariff is steadly increasing and the people began to realize the need for energy conservation.
Even the Government of India made an act for energy conservation in , which shows the seriousness of the power situation. Since domestic sector use the power in variety of applications, this is a potential area to be considered for energy optimization.
By reducing the domestic energy consumption, the other sectors will get more power thereby helping the country to prosper further. Energy used at home comprises of energy for cooking and processing food, comforts and luxuries.
While an urban home largely depends on cooking gas and electricity for its energy requirements. Most of the energy demand of a rural home is dependent on fire wood or fuel wood. The domestic energy expenditure, with the increasing cost of energy, is gradually assuming a sizable share of the total domestic expenditure. The per capita electricity consumption in the country is reported to be about units per annum with Gujarat on the top with an average of about units.
The average cost of one unit of electricity in the country is in the range of Rs. Cheap and sub-standard gadgets consume more energy as compared to expensive standard gadgets and prove to be costlier on a long run. Energy consumption in Indian domestic sector mostly comprises of electricity used in homes for lighting, refrigeration and power supply for other gadgets.
Other forms of energy used are fuel for cooking etc. So there is an angle opportunity of energy conservation in electrical energy used in domestic sector in India. So, electrical energy saving potential lies in lighting luminaires, refrigeration equipment and gadgets. Lot of energy can be saved by adopting latest technology in these equipment.
As we know that electric lighting burns considerable amount of the average home energy budget. The electricity used over the lifetime of a single incandescent bulb costs 5 to 10 times the original purchase price of the bulb itself.
CFLs are simply miniature versions of full-sized fluorescents. They screw into standard lamp sockets and give off light that looks just like the common incandescent bulbs — not like the fluorescent lighting we associate with factories and schools. LEDs are small, solid light bulbs which are extremely energy-efficient. New LED bulbs are grouped in clusters with diffuser lenses which have broadened the applications for LED use in the home.
Lot of electrical energy can be saved in the domestic sector by adopting the suitable energy conservation techniques in the following equipment used in household: Despite their inefficiency, they are still preferred in lower income groups just because of their very low initial cost.
Fluorescent lamps are also popular and are used mainly in the utility areas like reading rooms, bedrooms and living rooms, though they are costlier by more than 10 to 15 times than incandescent lamps. Even in the fluorescent lamps, aluminium chokes are predominant, which cost much less compared to copper choke.
Hence it is one area that should be concentrated most for conservation of energy. Now-a-days use of CFLs Compact Fluorescent Lamp is steadily increasing because of their very low power consumption, long life and better illumination over incandescent lamps. However, CFLs may not be a replacement when illumination is required for precision work. From table one can observe that the incandescent lamp is a source for energy wastage because of its low luminous efficiency.
For calculations it is assumed that the operation hours are 5 hours per day and the cost of energy as Rs. In both the cases, it can be observed that the savings are very impressive and hence replacement of incandescent lamps is highly recommended.
The payback period is inversely proportional to the period of usage. Another method to conserve energy in this area is to use the natural light effectively so that the period of usage of lamps may be minimized. Apart from it, energy efficient LED lamps can also be used in place of incandescent lamps.
In India, fans available at varying cost ranging from as low as Rs. Cheap fans normally use substandard core laminations and aluminium windings. Standard fans are made with quality material but cost two to three times.
The power consumption varies from 60 Watts to 90 Watts depending on the quality of the fan. Though electronic regulators are available in the market at costs ranging from Rs. The user has no choice for opting for an electronic regulator. At medium speeds, a saving of about 14 Watts was observed with the use of electronic regulator.
Replacement of low efficient fan with series regulator with high efficient fan with electronic regulator is highly recommended. Refrigerator is another common appliance in middle and upper classes in India. These are available in variety of capacities and models, but the most popular among them is the single door liters capacity. Almost all the refrigerators have right hinged doors operated with right hand.
Operation of the refrigerator with right hand takes longer time since door opening and handing the contents is to be done by right hand only. This is particularly true with cooking items since they are normally touched with right hand only in India.
This leads to loss of cooling and can be saved to some extent if a left hinged door is provided. Refrigerators in India are mostly used for preservation of food items and for cold water.
If two separate compartments are provided, there can be good energy savings since the loss of cooling due to door opening is confined to that compartment only. Normally, defrosting is done only when the deep freezer is completely choked with ice, which hampers the effectiveness thus making a refrigerator inefficient. Another common flaw is insufficient space behind the refrigerator, which deteriorates the heat transfer.
The vendors should educate the consumers to ensure periodical defrosting and not to place the refrigerators close to the walls. Immersion heaters, storage geysers and running water heaters instant water heaters are available in India.
Immersion water heaters are the cheapest and are widely used despite the fatal risk involved just because of its cost.
Solar water heaters are not available in many places because of their prohibitively high initial investment. These are used only in luxury hotels, guesthouses and cottages, as the Government made it a principle to install them in these places to conserve energy. Apart from the energy savings, the hot water can be used for other purposes like washing and cooking during the summer when hot water is not necessary for bath. Most of the motors are controlled manually and average usage is about two hours a day.
Overflow of tank is a common phenomenon in India since the use of automatic water level controllers is not yet popular and on a average there will be a loss of at least 10 minutes per day per motor in the form of overflow. An automatic water level controller is available for about Rs. The following calculation shows the savings if an automatic water controller is installed: The savings will increase with the increase of the rating of the motor and the time of overflow.
This also increases the comfort level and conserves the water resources. From the above mentioned strategies or techniques, adopted for electrical energy conservation in domestic sector indicates huge energy saving potential. Now, besides the electrical energy consumption in household, the other major chunk of energy in the form of fuel wood, natural gas etc. So, these is an ample amount of energy saving opportunities in the kitchen. There should be proper ventilation to the outside for the cook-tops and ranges, especially while cooking with gas.
But the fan should not be running longer than the need or will result in wasting the energy in heating the home. And make sure the fan in use in the downdraft vent is not too large since that would waste energy too. Ventilation fans create a slight vacuum. To balance the air pressure, cold air is sucked in from the outside through cracks in the walls, around windows and doors, etc.
Then the heater starts in to heat up the cold air. This is why too big a fan leads to energy waste. Worse, if the fan draws out so much air that cold air cannot come into the house fast enough to equalize the pressure, an oil or gas heating system may not vent properly.
This situation may lead to a back draft of combustible gases into the house. The back draft problem is a big concern with large downdraft ventilation fans used with some cook-tops and ranges.
Smaller pans need less energy to heat up. Microwaves use less energy than full-size ovens. Smaller ovens use less energy than larger ones. Then put the pan on the burner that fits it best. Remember that smaller burners use less electricity. Every type of heating element on an electric cook-top coils, solid disk elements and radiant elements under ceramic glass works more efficiently when the bottom of the pan is flat.
Convection ovens are more energy-efficient than standard ovens. They continuously circulate heat around the food which distributes the heat more evenly so temperatures and cooking time can be decreased. In fact, the most efficient pan has a slightly concave bottom, which flattens out when the metal heats up. The more rounded or warped the pan, the less direct contact it has with the burner so the harder the element has to work to heat up the pan.
The flame on your gas burner should be blue. A yellow flame means the gas is not burning efficiently. Call the gas company to check it. Using glass or ceramic pans in the oven allows turning down the temperature about 25 degrees Fahrenheit and still cook the food in the same amount of time.
When immersion rods are used, switch off when water is heated to the required level. Cover the container with a lid to avoid wastage. Periodical inspection of wiring may be done to defect leakage if any. Use Earth leakage circuit breakers. Think about what you want before you reach for the door. Get in the habit of keeping items in the same place in the fridge e. Make sure foods are covered before they are kept in the refrigerator. Otherwise the moisture in them will evaporate, which makes the refrigerator use more energy.
Let foods cool before they are put into the refrigerator or freezer. Freezer works more efficiently when full than when nearly empty, so put some plastic containers like old milk jugs with water in them in the freezer to take up empty space. Similar to the energy conservation opportunities and measures applicable in the domestic house, we can save substantial amount of electrical energy by adopting simple techniques or measures in the office as well.
Most of the energy consumed in the office is in the form of electrical energy for lighting, running ACs, operating office equipment etc. Energy can be saved by optimizing the use of these equipment and using energy efficient technologies.
Also the design of office building plays on important role in energy conservation. CFLs use only one-fourth the energy and last up to 10 times longer. Switch off all unnecessary lights. Use dimmers, motion sensors or occupancy sensors to automatically turn off lighting when not in use to reduce energy use and costs.
Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire room, focus the light where you need it, to directly illuminate work areas. Close or adjust window blinds to block direct sunlight to reduce cooling needs during warm months. Overhangs or exterior window covers are most effective to block sunlight on south facing windows.
In the winter months, open blinds on south-facing windows during the day to allow sunlight to naturally heat your workspace. At night, close the blinds to reduce heat loss at night. Unplug equipment that drains energy when not in use i. Turn off your computer and monitors at the end of the work day, if possible. If you leave your desk for an extended time, turn off your monitor.
Turn off photocopier at night or purchase a new copier with low standby feature. Purchase printers and fax machines with power management features and itself. Photocopy only what you need. Always use the second side of paper, either by printing on both sides or using the blank side as scrap paper.
Collect your utility bills: Separate electricity and fuel bills. Target the largest energy consumer or the largest bill for energy conservation measures. These above mentioned energy conservation measures when adopted can brought drastic reduction in the energy bill for the office. In the previous section, we have seen the energy conservation needs and various strategies which can be applied to achieve energy savings in domestic sector.
As we know in the domestic sector buildings are involved. Similar strategies or mechanism can be applied to commercial buildings such as organisation building or office building etc. There is a huge potential of energy savings in buildings of an organisation of office as we have discussed in energy saving measures for domestic sector earlier.
Everyone knows that saving energy is a good thing, but most people will only be motivated when we can demonstrate just how much energy they are wasting and just how much potential there is for them to improve. Essentially you need to raise the energy awareness of all concerned in an organisation and for this; you need an energy-awareness campaign.
Now, typical preparation for an energy-awareness campaign might begin with a hunt for generic poster facts and figures and generic pictures of light switches, children hugging trees and polar bears on melting ice caps etc. But the problem with that approach is that most people have seen it all many times before and consequently they rarely stop to think about the underlying message. The usual array of eliched poster facts and figures is not nearly as effective as targeted facts and figures that are specific to your organisation and that you easily come up with yourself.
The knock-on effects of us using it e. When your concept of energy awareness is closer to home, your campaign will naturally use messages, facts and figures that are closer to home too. The more you can relate your facts and figures to the day-to-day actions of your staff, the more likely they will be to take action.
So, instead of using global statistics or natural statistics or city-level statistics in your campaign, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption at your organisation.
Energy supplies can be extended by the conservation, or planned management, of currently available resources. There are three types of energy conservation practices. The first is curtailment; doing without. For instance, cutting back on travel to reduce the amount of gasoline burned.
Energy conservation is a vital element in the planning and management of energy sources. This approach not only necessitates the need to save energy for future use but derives efficient approaches of avoiding wasteful use of energy through the provision of effective solutions towards the energy crisis.
Energy conservation is a very important part of energy planning and its management. It not only saves energy resources for future, avoids wasteful utilisation of energy, provides solution to energy crisis and ensures higher per capita availability/ consumption but controls environmental degradation and pollution. - Household Energy Usage and Conservation Household energy conservation is a very practical and realistic approach to conserving energy within our society. US households consume a tremendous amount of natural gas as well as electric energy.
Energy Conservation: It is the practice of reducing the quantity of energy used. It may be attained through efficient energy use; in this case, energy use is decreased at the same time getting a same outcome as a result, or by reduced consumption of energy services. Essay # 7. Energy Conservation Process/Activities for a Building: In the previous section, we have seen the energy conservation needs and various strategies which can be applied to achieve energy savings in domestic sector. As we know in the domestic sector buildings are involved.