In contrast, Bladen points out the link between media and security at these events, highlighting the fact that the presence of the global media makes the site of these events significant targets for terrorism and other forms of protest.
Increases in threats against the national security of the host country have made counter-terrorism strategies key themes in the staging mega-events Giulianotti and Klauser Due to its immense size, it is also common for mega events to have mega impacts on the host nation, from the creation of growth and development opportunities to adverse impacts on the social, economic, culture and environment of the country Malfas et al Firstly, citizens of the host nation develop a sense of civic pride in their culture and traditions, as their nation becomes the center of attention for the world.
This also generates a positive sociocultural impact on the host nation as it creates a sense of cohesion and bond amongst citizens as they work together to create an experience for the international audience. Jago et al Evidence of this seen in the upcoming World Cup to be held in Brazil, as massive construction and reconstruction has led to residents living near stadium faced a series of evictions and relocations, resulting in degradation in their quality of life from the demolition of their homes.
Mega events such as the Olympics act as a catalyst for job creation, which relieves unemployment in a country, an example being the Olympic games in Atlanta, Georgia which created new jobs between and Malfas et al However, both Jago et al and Malfas et al highlight the fact that some jobs associated with the event tend to have a lifespan of the event of itself and are unskilled positions. Both authors emphasize that the duration and low quality of the jobs created is often overlooked which results in a short term positive impact on the host population, due to changes in the demand after the event period.
Yu et al This shows the capability of mega events to change international perspectives on a country, and the influence such events can have on a nation. However, to achieve planned destination brand, there needs to be a strategic fit between the event, host city, community support and event quality to enhancing host destination brand Yu et al, This illustrates the idea that the impact outcomes of achieving a desirable destination brand through a mega event will be dependent on how the host is able to adapt the event brand to its own requirements and use it to emphasize their destination, whilst maintain the quality and power of the event brand.
Both Green et al and Jago et al examines the idea of good and bad publicity, highlighting the fact that the media tends to seek negative stories, which can badly affect the brand image trying to be created from the mega event.
Green et al Due to this, media coverage can be detrimental to the destination branding, and may potentially damage the future tourism brand of the country. Events of such magnitude will inevitable cause negative impacts on the host nation, and whilst some are unavoidable, special committees are organized at the start of the planning process to ensure that these events will leave a lasting legacy to on the host population, and the world at large.
Gratton and Preuss Ahead of the London Games, around?? However, a notable negative infrastructure legacy is the issue of many mega-sporting events, leaving oversized sport arenas that remain after the games. The legacy of education also presents itself through the host population educating themselves on issues affecting their country and gaining skills through work development schemes to enter the workforce Gratton and Preuss, However, the skill legacy is often a missed opportunity due to specialist expertise being outsourced for the event and leaving the country after the event reducing the opportunity for locals to develop a high end skills base to get beyond entry level positions Jago et al However, Gratton and Preuss Whilst the figures presented by Gratton and Preuss does not reflect the legacy of all mega event, it can be inferred that due to the large amount of jobs generated the host population is given the opportunity to educate themselves and develop employability skills.
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