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Module 3: Ensuring Validity

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❶However, if a test is reliable, that does not mean that it is valid.

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What is Reliability?
Confounding Variables

Define and reliability and validity in qualitative research. Discuss the importance of establishing validity. List strategies used by researchers to improve reliability and validity.

In order to withstand the scrutiny, researchers should spend time giving serious consideration to the following four aspects: Credibility - Often called internal validity, refers to the believability and trustworthiness of the findings.

This depends more on the richness of the data gathered than on the quantity of data. The participants of the study are the only ones that decide if the results actually reflect the phenomena being studied and therefore, it is important that participants feel the findings are credible and accurate. Triangulation is a commonly used method for verifying accuracy that involves cross-checking information from multiple perspectives.

The link in Resources Links on the left describes different types of triangulation methods. Transferability - Often called external validity, refers to the degree that the findings of the research can be transferred to other contexts by the readers. This means that the results are generalizable and can be applied to other similar settings, populations, situations and so forth.

Researchers should thoroughly describe the context of the research to assist the reader in being able to generalize the findings and apply them appropriately. Dependability - Otherwise known as reliability, refers to the consistency with which the results could be repeated and result in similar findings. The dependability of the findings also lends legitimacy to the research method. Because the nature of qualitative research often results in an ever changing research setting and changing contexts, it is important that researcher document all aspects of any changes or unexpected occurrences to further explain the findings.

This is also important for other researchers who may want to replicate the study. Confirmability - A measure of the objectivity used in evaluating the results, describes how well the research findings are supported by the actual data collected when examined by other researchers. Conducting Research in Psychology: Measuring the Weight of Smoke, 3rd Edition.

Wadsworth Publishing February 27, All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Privacy Policy Information Disclaimer. Ensuring Validity Confounding Variables A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that is statistically related to or correlated with the independent variable.

Validity The remainder of this short course in research methods will examine various threats to validity that exist at each stage of the research process. Validity refers to whether a study is well-designed and provides results that are appropriate to generalize to the population of interest.

External Validity A researcher often cannot work with the entire population of interest but instead must study a smaller sample of that population in order to draw conclusions about the larger group from which the sample is taken. In this study, the photos have good internal validity as stress producers.

External validity - the results can be generalized beyond the immediate study. In order to have external validity, the claim that spaced study studying in several sessions ahead of time is better than cramming for exams should apply to more than one subject e. It should also apply to people beyond the sample in the study. Different methods vary with regard to these two aspects of validity. Experiments, because they tend to be structured and controlled, are often high on internal validity.

However, their strength with regard to structure and control, may result in low external validity. The results may be so limited as to prevent generalizing to other situations.

In contrast, observational research may have high external validity generalizability because it has taken place in the real world. However, the presence of so many uncontrolled variables may lead to low internal validity in that we can't be sure which variables are affecting the observed behaviors. Relationship between reliability and validity. If data are valid, they must be reliable.

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Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner. Reliability refers to the extent to which.

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Research Reliability Reliability refers to whether or not you get the same answer by using an instrument to measure something more than once. In simple terms, research reliability is the degree to which research method produces stable .

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What is Validity? Validity encompasses the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the requirements of the scientific research method. Reliability and Validity. In order for research data to be of value and of use, they must be both reliable and valid.. Reliability.

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You are here: AllPsych > Research Methods > Chapter Test Validity and Reliability Test Validity and Reliability Whenever a test or other measuring device is used as part of the data collection process, the validity and reliability of that test is important. Reliability is consistency across time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across researchers (interrater reliability). Validity is the extent to which the scores actually represent the variable they are intended to.