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❶We need Communes to create a new society within the shell of the old with the philosophy of the new, which is not a new philosophy but a very old philosophy, a philosophy so old that it looks like new. So people find themselves in all kinds of financial difficulties because the State has legalized money-lending at interest.

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The spiritual works of mercy, Maurin stressed, make it incumbent on scholars to share their knowledge with workers. Workers, in their turn, could help scholars with their skills and acquaint them with the realities of their situation.

Only in this way could workers become scholars and scholars workers. The ramifications of mercy, which is only love under the aspect of need, are endless. He introduced a term from the works of the French writer and philosopher, Emmanuel Mounier, personalism. The ancient ban on usury meaning simply interest by the Church Fathers and the Prophets of Israel has fallen into disuse.

Money was not supposed to breed money. Here the ethos of the profit system and the ethos of the Gospel collide. The Gospel has a clear injunction regarding our surplus possessions and funds. They are to be used to meet the needs of those who lack necessities. The ethos of a profit economy calls for surplus funds to be banked or invested so that they may increase by means of interest. The source of the increase in riches becomes a matter of indifference rather than of moral concern. Where only an increase of riches or profit matters, then economic activity has at its heart an ethical void.

All manner of unjust economic structures may grow and flourish and all manner of exploitation may abound. Work is taken to the places where labor is cheapest and workers have fewest rights. If surpluses are used in charity, or in cooperatives for human purposes such as home-building for the less affluent, life necessarily becomes simpler and the ideal of voluntary poverty cannot be far behind. The Christian doctrine of property becomes a reality, namely the retaining of a sufficiency of goods for an adequate life and the sharing of the remainder with the needy.

In point of fact, millions of Christians, working for wages, actually live out this teaching on property. How else do we explain the world-wide network of the works of mercy supported by the small gifts of the many, Though there are Catholic millionaires, the masses of Catholics are rather the victims than the beneficiaries of corporations as they roam about the world seeking profits.

He helped people transcend the tyranny of false alternatives. Unjust structures will never be replaced unless they are first replaced in the heart. On Marxism Is Inflation Inevitable? Back to Christ—Back to the Land! Writing about the Catholic Church, a radical writer says: If the Catholic Church is not today the dominant social dynamic force, it is because Catholic scholars have failed to blow the dynamite of the Church. Catholic scholars have taken the dynamite of the Church, have wrapped it up in nice phraseology, placed it in an hermetic container and sat on the lid.

It is about time to blow the lid off so the Catholic Church may again become the dominant social dynamic force. Christ drove the money changers out of the Temple. But today nobody dares to drive the money lenders out of the Temple. And nobody dares to drive the money lenders out of the Temple because the money lenders have taken a mortgage on the Temple. When church builders build churches with money borrowed from money lenders they increase the prestige of the money lenders.

But increasing the prestige of the money lenders does not increase the prestige of the Church. Which makes Archbishop McNicholas say: To apply the ethics of the encyclicals to the problems of today, such is the purpose of Catholic Action. Uncle Sam doles out every year more than a billion dollars to the money lenders. There were no money lenders on the payroll in Palestine and Ireland. There were no money lenders on the payroll in Palestine and Ireland because the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church forbid lending money at interest.

Business men say that because everybody is selfish, business must therefore be based on selfishness. But when business is based on selfishness everybody is busy becoming more selfish. And when everybody is busy becoming more selfish. Business cannot set its house in order because business men are moved by selfish motives. Business men create problems. When the bank account is the standard of values the class on the top sets the standard. When the class on the top cares only for money it does not care for culture.

When the class on the top does not care for culture, nobody cares for culture. And when nobody cares for culture civilization decays. When class distinction is not based on the sense of noblesse oblige, it becomes clothes distinction. When class distinction has become clothes distinction everybody tries to put up a front.

Modern society believes in separation of Church and State. But the Jews did not believe in it, the Greeks did not believe in it, the Medievalists did not believe in it, the Puritans did not believe in it.

Modern society has separated the Church from the State, but it has not separated the State from business. Thomas Jefferson says that the less government there is, the better it is. If the less government there is, the better it is, then the best kind of government is self-government. If the best kind of government is self-government, then the best kind of organization is self-organization.

But the Greeks used to say that people in need are the ambassadors of the gods. Although you may be called bums and panhandlers you are in fact the Ambassadors of God. Mahometan teachers tell us that God commands hospitality, and hospitality is still practiced in Mahometan countries.

But the duty of hospitality is neither taught nor practiced in Christian countries. That is why you who are in need are not invited to spend the night in the homes of the rich. There are guest rooms today in the homes of the rich but they are not for those who need them. And they are not for those who need them because those who need them are no longer considered as the Ambassadors of God. So people no longer consider hospitality to the poor as a personal duty.

Catholic Houses of Hospitality are known in Europe under the name of hospices. There have been hospices in Europe since the time of Constantine. Hospices are free guest houses; hotels are paying guest houses. And paying guest houses or hotels are as plentiful as free guest houses or hospices are scarce. So hospitality, like everything else, has been commercialized.

So hospitality, like everything else, must now be idealized. We need Houses of Hospitality to give to the rich the opportunity to serve the poor.

We need Houses of Hospitality to bring the Bishops to the people and the people to the Bishops. We need Houses of Hospitality to bring back to institutions the technique of institutions. We need Houses of Hospitality to show what idealism looks like when it is practiced. We need Houses of Hospitality to bring social justice through Catholic Action exercised in Catholic institutions. We read in the Catholic Encyclopedia that during the early ages of Christianity the hospice or the House of Hospitality was a shelter for the sick, the poor, the orphans, the old, the traveler, and the needy of every kind.

Originally the hospices or Houses of Hospitality were under the supervision of the Bishops, who designated priests to administer the spiritual and temporal affairs of these charitable institutions. The fourteenth statute of the so-called Council of Carthage, held about , enjoins upon the Bishops to have hospices or Houses of Hospitality in connection with their churches.

Today we need Houses of Hospitality as much as they needed them then. Bossuet says that the poor are the first children of the Church. People with homes should have a room of hospitality. So as to give shelter to the needy members of the parish. The remaining needy members of the parish should be given shelter in a Parish Home. Furniture, clothing, and food should be sent to the needy members of the parish at the Parish House of Hospitality.

We need Parish Homes as well as Parish Domes. In the new Cathedral of Liverpool there will be a Home as well as a dome. Catholic Houses of Hospitality should be more than free guest houses for the Catholic unemployed. They could be vocational training schools, including the training for the priesthood, as Father Corbett proposes.

They could be Catholic reading rooms, as Father McSorley proposes. In your instruction about writing you told us that the best way to learn to write is to write letters because a letter is a message from someone to somebody about something. So this is a message from an agitator to another agitator about a discontented world which begins to realize that things are not good enough to be left alone.

The Catholic Worker thinks that you are a wonder. We know what good work you are doing among Catholic college youth. But Catho1ic college youth is a small proportion of Catholic youth and all Catholic youth needs you. Not only all Catholic youth needs you but all youth needs you. And not only all those who are in their first youth but all those who are getting in their second youth and also all those who have reached the age of maturity without having reached the state of maturity.

That is to say, we all need you. We all need you because you have the knack of getting at the core of things and of presenting your findings in a vivid and dynamic form. In one of his editorials Father Gillis says that this age is very much like the age of the fall of Rome and that we could use one another St.

Father Gillis adds that we need men to stir things up and that we have too many who try to smother them down. You certainly can stir things up and you can do that with much ease. It is said that Abbe Chardonnel, who was a poet, became a priest so he could be more of a poet. You, who are a born agitator, have become a priest, which makes you more of an agitator. Louis University, one of the best American universities, to turn out Masters of Agitation. To be a Marxian, according to the logic of Das Kapital, is to step back, take an academic view of things and watch the self-satisfied capitalists dig their own graves.

To be a Marxian, according to the logic of Das Kapital, is to have faith in the forces of materialism— forces so powerful, according to materialists, that they will bring the millennium whether man wants it or not. To be a Marxian, according to the logic of Das Kapital, is to let economic evolution do its work without ever attempting to give it a push. Karl Marx soon realized that his own analysis of bourgeois society could not be the basis of a dynamic revolutionary movement.

Karl Marx soon realized that a forceful Communist Manifesto was the necessary foundation of a dynamic Communist Movement. Karl Marx soon realized. To write the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx did not use his analysis of capitalism. He took the definition of Communism of Proudhon and made it his own.

He borrowed Utopian criticism and Utopian aims and decided to advocate class-struggle, that is to say, materialist aims. As some people used to think that we need a good honest war to end all wars, Karl Marx used to think that we need a gigantic class-struggle to bring about a classless society. Our criticism of bourgeois society is the criticism of St. We Catholics have a better conception of Communism than the conception of Proudhon.

Our conception of Communism is the conception of St. Catholic Action is action by Catholics for Catholics and non-Catholics. We want to reconstruct the social order through Catholic Action exercised in Catholic institutions.

Shortly after the war Bishops of America formulated a Program of Social Reconstruction largely based on co-operation. Catholic laymen and women were more interested in a laissez-faire economy. Catholic laymen and women are more interested in political action than they are interested in Catholic Action. Catholic laymen and women are more ready to follow the leadership of the politicians than they are ready to follow the leadership of the Bishops.

The Holy Father and the Bishops ask us to reconstruct the social order. The social order was once constructed through dynamic Catholic Action.

When the barbarians invaded the decaying Roman Empire Irish missionaries went all over Europe and laid the foundations of medieval Europe.

Through the establishment of cultural centers, that is to say, Round-Table Discussions, they brought thought to the people. Through free guest houses, that is to say, Houses of Hospitality, they popularized the divine virtue of charity.

Through farming colonies, that is to say, Agronomic Universities, they emphasized voluntary poverty. It was on the basis of personal charity and voluntary poverty that Irish missionaries laid the foundations of the social order. The Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church forbid lending money at interest. Lending money at interest is called usury by the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church.

Usurers were not considered to be Gentlemen when people used to listen to the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church. When John Calvin legalized moneylending at interest he made the bank account the standard of values.

When the bank account became the standard of values, people ceased to produce for use and began to produce for profits. When people began to produce for profits they became wealth-producing maniacs. When people became wealth-producing maniacs they produced too much wealth. When people found out that they had produced too much wealth they went on an orgy of wealth destruction and destroyed ten million lives besides.

And fifteen years after a world-wide orgy of wealth and life destruction millions of people find themselves victims of a world-wide depression brought about by a world gone mad on mass-production and mass-distribution. Because John Calvin legalized money-lending at interest, the State has legalized money-lending at interest. Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, home-owners have mortgaged their homes. Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, farmers have mortgaged their farms.

Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, institutions have mortgaged their buildings. Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, congregations have mortgaged their churches. Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, cities, counties, States, and the Federal Government have mortgaged their budgets.

So people find themselves in all kinds of financial difficulties because the State has legalized money-lending at interest. When people save money, they invest that money. Money invested increases production. Increased production brings a surplus in production. A surplus in production brings unemployment. Unemployment brings a slump in business. A slump in business brings more unemployment.

More unemployment brings a depression. A depression brings more depression. More depression brings red agitation. Red agitation brings red revolution.

Some say that inflation is desirable. Some say that inflation is deplorable. Some say that inflation is deplorable but inevitable. The way to avoid inflation is to lighten the burden of the money borrowers without robbing the money lenders. And the way to lighten the burden of the money borrowers without robbing the money lenders is to pass two laws, one law making immediately illegal all interest on money lent and another law obliging the money borrowers to pay one per cent of their debt every year during a period of a hundred years.

There is a lot of talk today about the social value of Fascism. But Fascism is only a stopgap between capitalism and Bolshevism. Fascist dictatorship is a halfway house between the rugged individualism of capitalism and the rugged collectivism of Bolshevism. There is no essential difference between Fascist dictatorship and Bolshevik dictatorship. The trouble with the world today is too much dictatorship and too little leadership.

Leadership cannot he found among politicians, business men and college professors. The appointed leaders of mankind are the Catholic Bishops. Catholic Bishops have ceased to lead because Catholic laymen and women do not consider the Bishops as their leaders in political and economic matters.

Catholic laymen and women look up to the Bishops in spiritual matters and look up to politicians and business men in political and economic matters. Catholic laymen and women commit the great modern error of separating the spiritual from the material.

You, who are a born agitator and a theologian, hould bring a thorough understanding between Bishops, clergy, and lay people. From that understanding would spring a form of Catholic Action that would be dynamic in character. We are threatened with dynamic Bolshevik action because we are sorely lacking in dynamic Catholic Action.

But I found out that agitation is not rampant on the campus. Only business is rampant on the campus, although business is the bunk. And turning toward his secretary, Professor Moley said: A battle royal is raging between East and West, between stock speculators and land speculators, between money lenders and money borrowers. To increase the amount of currency, as the mild inflationists propose, is to favor the money borrowers at the expense of the money lenders.

To devise schemes so as to bring about a rise in prices is to favor both money lenders and money borrowers at the expense of the consuming public. We made the mistake of running business on credit and credit has run into debts and debts are leading us toward bankruptcy.

The Jews had a way of wiping off the slate. Every fifty years, the year of the Jewish Jubilee, all debts were liquidated. But nobody, not even the Jews. John Maynard Keynes, the well-known English economist, says that we ought to ask ourselves if the medieval economists were not sound in condemning money-lending at interest.

In his book on Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, R. Tawney, another English economist, points out that at the base of our acquisitive society we find legalized usury, or lending money at interest. Because the State has legalized money-lending at interest, in spite of the teachings of the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church, home owners have mortgaged their homes, farm owners have mortgaged their farms, institutions have mortgaged their buildings, governments have mortgaged their budgets.

So we are where we are because the State has legalized money-lending at interest in spite of the teachings of the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church. To go back to the teachings of the Prophets of Israel and the Fathers of the Church, as I propose in my Easy Essays in the current number of The Catholic Worker, would not do any injustice to the money lenders or the money borrowers or the consuming public. Money lenders would get their money back, money borrowers would find their burdens lightened, and the consuming public would not have to pay the bill.

We would go back to the point from which we should never have gone. We would go back to the time when no one was called a gentleman who indulged in money-lending at interest.

Many people say that we cannot go back, but I say neither can we go ahead, for we are parked in a blind alley. And when people are parked in a blind alley the only thing to do is to go back.

For when people lend money at interest that money is invested. More unemployment brings more depression, A depression brings more depression, More depression brings red agitation. Two years ago I went to see college professors and asked them to give me the formulation of those universal concepts embodied in the universal message of universal universities that will enable the common man to create a universal economy.

But college professors were too busy teaching subjects to be interested in mastering situations. College professors were too interested in academic matters to be interested in dynamic matters. But now college professors realize that they must be men of action as well as men of thought— that they must be dynamic as well as academic, and that Union Square can teach something to college professors as well as learning from college professors.

The scholar has told the bourgeois that a worker is a man for all that. But the bourgeois has told the scholar that a worker is a commodity for all that. Because the scholar has vision, the bourgeois calls him a visionary. And the worker left by the scholar without vision talks about liquidating both the bourgeois and the scholar. The scholars must tell the workers what is wrong with the things as they are. The scholars must tell the workers how a path can be made from the things as they are to the things as they should be.

The scholars must collaborate with the workers in making a path from the things as they are to the things as they should be. The scholars must become workers so the workers may be scholars. Henry Adams tells us in his autobiography that he could not get an education in America, because education implies unity of thought and there is no unity of thought in America.

So he went to England and found that England was too much like America. So he went to France and found that France was too much like England and America. But in France he found the Cathedral of Chartres and from the Cathedral of Chartres he learned that there was unity of thought in thirteenth-century France. People who built the Cathedral of Chartres knew how to combine cult, that is to say liturgy, with culture, that is to say philosophy, and cultivation, that is to say agriculture.

The Cathedral of Chartres is a real work of art because it is the real expression of the spirit of a united people.

Churches that are built today do not express the spirit of the people. How much did it cost? The Cathedral of Chartres was not built with money borrowed from money lenders.

Maurice Barres used to worry about the preservation of French Cathedrals, but Charles Peguy thought that the faith that builds Cathedrals is after all the thing that matters. Moscow had a thousand churches and people lost the faith. Churches ought to be built with donated money, donated material, donated labor. The motto of St. Benedict was Laborare et Orare, Labor and Pray. Labor and prayer ought to be combined; labor ought to be a prayer.

The liturgy of the Church is the prayer of the Church. People ought to pray with the Church and to work with the Church. The religious life of the people and the economic life of the people ought to be one. I heard that in Germany a group of Benedictines is trying to combine liturgy with sociology. Members would be assessed a dollar a year, and the money so raised would be used to start Houses of Hospitality.

Most organizations exist, not for the benefit of the organized, but for the benefit of the organizers. When the organizers try to organize the unorganized they do not organize themselves. If everybody organized himself, everybody would be organized.

There is no better way to be than to be what we want the other fellow to be. The money that comes from assessments is not worth getting. Parish Houses of Hospitality must be built on Christian charity. But Parish Houses of Hospitality are only half-way houses. Parish Subsistence Camps are the most efficient way to make an impression on the depression.

The basis for a Christian economy Is genuine charity and voluntary poverty. To give money to the poor is to increase the buying power of the poor. Money is by definition a means of exchange and not a means to make money.

When money is used as a means of exchange, it helps to consume the goods that have been produced. When money is used as an investment, it does not help to consume the goods that have been produced, it helps to produce more goods, to bring over-production and therefore increase unemployment. So much money has been put into business that it has put business out of business. Money given to the poor is functional money. Money used as an investment is prostituted money, money that does not fulfill its function.

Poverty and charity are no longer looked up to, they are looked down upon. The poor have ceased to accept poverty and the rich have ceased to practice charity. When the poor are satisfied to be poor, the rich become charitable toward the poor. Because Christianity presents poverty as an ideal Bolshevik Communists try to make us believe that religion is the opium of the people.

Karl Marx says that the worker is exploited at the point of production. But the worker would not be exploited at the point of production if the worker did not sell his labor to the exploiter of his labor. When the worker sells his labor to a capitalist or accumulator of labor he allows the capitalist or accumulator of labor to accumulate his labor. And when the worker can no longer sell his labor to the capitalist or accumulator of labor he can no longer buy the products of his labor.

And that is what the worker gets for selling his labor to the capitalist or accumu1ator of labor. He just gets left and he gets what is coming to him. There is so much depression because there is so little expression. I am fostering Parish Subsistence Camps or Agronomic Universities as a means to bring about a state of society where scholars are workers and where workers are scholars. In a Parish Subsistence Camp or Agronomic University the worker does not work for wages, he leaves that to the University.

In a Parish Subsistence Camp or Agronomic University the worker does not look for a bank account he leaves that to the University. In a Parish Subsistence Camp or Agronomic University the worker does not look for an insurance policy, he leaves that to the University.

In a Parish Subsistence Camp or Agronomic University the worker does not look for an old-age pension, he leaves that to the University. In a Parish Subsistence Camp or Agronomic University the worker does not look for a rainy day, he leaves that to the University.

Modern industry has no work for everybody but work can be found for everybody in Parish Subsistence Camps or Agronomic Universities. I may later on publish a magazine entitled The Agronomist for the fostering of the idea of Parish Subsistence Camps or Agronomic Universities. Edward Koch, of Germantown, Illinois, publishes a magazine entitled The Guildsman; you ought to get in touch with him.

In my answer to a reader from Bellingham, Washington, I said most organizations exist, not for the benefit of the organized but for the benefit of the organizers. I added that when the organizers try to organize the unorganized they do not organize themselves. I had in mind some selfish exploiters of the exploitation of the exploited who like to be called labor leaders.

I had in mind some exalted rulers of secret societies who, while they call themselves Masons, have not yet learned to create order out of chaos.

I had in mind some dignified regulators of societies which have some secrets without being called secret societies. I think that you are much better than some of your ideas. I think that you are inclined to lead a life of sacrifice. During the World War you placed your life at the service of the British Empire.

After the war, you placed your life at the service of the Irish Republic. And now you have placed your life at the service of the Church. You and your fellow workers of the Catholic Labor Guild are trying to combine prayer, action, and sacrifice, as the Holy Father suggests. Since you and your fellow workers want to be go-givers, you ought to give to those who are in need of giving. To give to people who have money to lend is to give to people who are not in need. People who have money should do good with their money, either give it away.

To pay interest on money loaned is to place an enterprise under a too heavy burden. Everyone must live on the sweat of his brow and not on money loaned. Nobody could lend money at interest If nobody would borrow money at interest. People who live on money loaned at interest reap some of the profits of property without the responsibility of property.

To pay double wages to managers is to make the workers envious of the managers. Managers should receive what they need and no more than they need. Paying double wages to managers is not the way to make aristocrats out of efficient managers.

You say that the Catholic Labor Guild does not lend money at interest I hope that it will see the way not to borrow money at interest. You say that the Catholic Labor Guild stands for profit-sharing.

I hope that your self-sacrificing example will lead the members of the Guild to stand for loss-sharing. When the members of the Guild decide to allow the Guild to accumulate the profits they will not need to worry about their economic security.

Let the members of the Guild give all they can to the Guild; the Guild will not leave them in want. Let the Labor Guild help all those it can help and the Farming Communes will help all those that the Guild cannot help.

Houses of Hospitality 3. We need Round-Table Discussions to keep trained minds from being academic. We need Round-Table Discussions to keep untrained minds from being superficial. We need Round-Table Discussions to learn from scholars how things would be, if they were as they should be. We need Round-Table Discussions to learn from scholars how a path can be made from things as they are to things as they should be.

We need Communes to help the unemployed to help themselves. We need Communes to make scholars out of workers and workers out of scholars, to substitute a technique of ideals for our technique of deals. We need Communes to create a new society within the shell of the old with the philosophy of the new, which is not a new philosophy but a very old philosophy, a philosophy so old that it looks like new. The Catholic social philosophy, is the philosophy of the Common Good of St.

Three books where this philosophy is expressed are: The world would be better off if people tried to become better. And people would become better if they stopped trying to become better off. For when everybody tries to become better off, nobody is better off. But when everybody tries to become better, everybody is better off. Everybody would be rich if nobody tried to become richer. And nobody would be poor if everybody tried to be the poorest. And everybody would be what he ought to be if everybody tried to be what be wants the other fellow to be.

Christianity has nothing to do with either modern capitalism or modern Communism, for Christianity has a capitalism of its own and a communism of its own. Modern capitalism is based on property without responsibility, while Christian capitalism is based on property with responsibility.

Modern Communism is based on poverty through force while Christian communism is based on poverty through choice. For a Christian, voluntary poverty is the ideal as exemplified by St. Francis desired that men should give up superfluous possessions. Francis desired that men should work with their hands. Francis desired that men should offer their services as a gift.

Francis desired that men should ask other people for help when work failed them. Francis desired that men should live as free as birds. Francis desired that men should go through life giving thanks to God for His gifts. Stealing, begging, and working. Begging is against the law of men but not against the law of God. Working is neither against the law of God nor against the law of men. But they say that there is no work to do. There is plenty of work to do, but no wages. But people do not need to work for wages, they can offer their services as a gift.

And organized labor plays into the hands of the capitalists, or accumulators of labor, by treating its own labor not as a gift, but as a commodity, selling it as any other commodity at the highest possible price. And the class struggle is a struggle between the buyers of labor at the lowest possible price and the sellers of labor at the highest possible price.

But the buyers of labor at the lowest possible price and the sellers of labor at the highest possible price are nothing but commercializers of labor.

When the workers sell their labor to the capitalists or accumulators of labor they allow the capitalists or accumulators of labor to accumulate their labor. And when the workers can no longer sell their labor to the capitalists or accumulators of labor they can no longer buy the products of their labor. And that is what the workers get for selling their labor. In tracing the remote causes of the present misery of mankind we must listen to him who as a loving father views from an eminence all the nations of the world.

Paul, our Holy Father says: From greed arises envy which makes a man consider the advantages of another as losses to himself. From greed arises narrow individua1ism which orders and subordinates everything to its own advantage. People looking for a rainy day have put so much money into business that they have brought about an increase in producing power and a decrease in purchasing power. In common with other nations we have brought about our present unhappy conditions by divorcing education, industry, politics, business, and economics from morality and religion and by ignoring for long decades the innate dignity of man and trampling on his human rights.

We have taken religion out of everything and have put commercialism into everything. That we are an industrial nation is our public boast. Industry is considered to be of more importance than the moral welfare of man. The lord of all is Industry. We are beginning to learn that to put big business on its feet does not necessarily put the forgotten man on his feet. The philosophy which has ruled govern- ments, groups, and individuals for the past three hundred years has not taken as its guide the moral law, has not considered the rights of men.

Money, not men, bas been the supreme consideration and the justifying end. When people care for money they do not care for culture. And when people do not care for culture they return to barbarism. That philosophy permits individuals to accumulate as much wealth as they can according to unfair methods of modern business and to use such accumulated wealth as they see fit. This extreme of individualism has led to the extreme of Communism. We rightly fear its spread in our country and see an especial menace in its insidious presentation of fundamental troubles for its own destructive ends.

When modern society made the bank account the standard of values people ceased to produce for use and began to produce for profit. Rugged individualism leads to rugged nationalism, which leads to rugged collectivism. The brotherhood of man is loudly proclaimed.

Energetic protest is made against injustice done to the working class. The abuses of the capitalist system are vigorously condemned. It is insisted that man shall not exploit his fellow man and that all shall be dedicated to a life of service. In a capitalist society where man is inhuman to man people cannot keep from dreaming about a society where man would be human to man. A program of social reform couched in such language and with such aims and purposes is unassailable because it is distinctly Christian in origin and purport, but in the hands of the Communists it is merely a snare to allure those who are oppressed by the prevailing economic maladjustment into accepting the iniquitous social and religious tenets of Lenin and Stalin.

There is a very grave and subtle danger of infection from Communism. Thomas Aquinas man is more than an individual with individual rights; he is a person with personal duties toward God, himself, and his fellow man. As a person man cannot serve God without serving the Common Good.

Special efforts are being made to win Negroes who are the victims of injustice. The Communists have as their objective a world war on God and the complete destruction of all supernatural and even natural religion. The Negroes are beginning to find out that wage slavery is no improvement on chattel slavery. The Communists say that Christianity is a failure, but it is not a failure for the very good reason that it has not been tried.

The Sacrifice of the Mass is the unbloody repetition of the Sacrifice of the Cross. On the Cross of Calvary Christ gave His life to redeem the world. The life of Christ was a life of sacrifice. The life of a Christian must be a life of sacrifice.

We cannot imitate the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary by trying to get all we can. We can only imitate the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary by trying to give all we can.

America is all shot to pieces since the little shots are no longer able to become big shots. When the little shots are not satisfied to remain little shots and try to become big shots, then the big shots are not satisfied to remain big shots and try to become bigger shots.

And when the big shots become bigger shots then the little shots become littler shots. And when the little shots become littler shots because the big shots become bigger shots then the little shots get mad at the big shots.

And when the little shots get mad at the big shots because the big shots by becoming bigger shots make the little shots littler shots they shoot the big shots full of little shots.

But by shooting the big shots full of little shots the little shots do not become big shots; they make everything all shot. Glenn Frank, president of Wisconsin University, says: We have divorced religion from education, we have divorced religion from politics, we have divorced religion from business.

When religion has nothing to do with education, education is only information, plenty of facts and no understanding. And when religion has nothing to do with either education, politics or business, you have the religion of business taking the place of the business of religion.

Our modern educators, our modern politicians, our modern business men have taken religion from everything and have put commercia1ism into everything. And now we have to take commercialism out of everything and to put religion into everything. The way to take commercialism out of everything and to put religion into everything is not through political action.

The way to take commercialism out of everything and to put religion into everything is through Catholic Action. Catholic Action is action by Catholic laymen in co-operation with the clergy. And Catholic clergymen have tried to mind their business with a business-like technique borrowed from business-minded people.

The forgotten man has been forgotten because clergymen have forgotten to rub shoulders with the forgotten man. And clergymen have forgotten to rub shoulders with the forgotten man because clergymen have forgotten to use logic to find what is practical. And because clergymen have forgotten to use logic to find what is practical they have failed to give us a sociology that has something to do with theology.

If there was a sociology that had something to do with theology it was the sociology of St. Francis of Assisi, St. Thomas Aquinas and St. But the sociology of St. And because clergymen are not interested in the sociology of St. Thomas More, the forgotten man is becoming interested in the sociology of Karl Marx, Lenin and Stalin. And because clergymen are not interested in a technique of leadership the forgotten man is becoming interested in a technique of dictatorship. And because clergymen are not interested in Dynamic Catholic Action the forgotten man is becoming interested in Dynamic Bolshevik Action.

I was told by the dean of a Catholic college that Catholic professors of Catholic colleges have neither the knowledge nor the courage to bring Catholic social thought to the man of the street.

The schools used to teach: The modern man looks for thought so he can have light, and is unable to find it in our modern schools. According to Glenn Frank, president of the University of Wisconsin. Shortly after their graduation school graduates can be heard shouting with Rotarians: How are you making out?

How is the world treating you? The law of supply and demand, Competition is the life of trade, Your dollar is your best friend. Catholic teachers teaching in Catholic or public schools who do not know how to present Catholic social thought either to the men on the street or to the pupils in the schools will be interested to learn that a Protestant agitator well known in Union Square is presenting the Thomistic doctrine of the Common Good to the men of the street in the streets of Harlem.

Hergenhan, such is his name, does not believe in the rugged individualism of capitalism or in the rugged nationalism of Fascism or in the rugged collectivism of Bolshevism. He believes in the gentle personalism of gentlemen who are gentle, gentleness that finds its roots in the common doctrine of the Common Good. Hergenhan believes that the doctrine of the Common Good is common to humanists who are human, to Jews who are orthodox, to Protestants who are Christian and to Catholics who are Catholic.

The Common Good movement is not a movement that divides, it is a movement that unites. The Common Good movement is not a new deal, it is an old game. The Common Good movement is not a revolution to the left, it is a revolution to the right.

When in Pope Leo XIII wrote his encyclical on the condition of labor he emphasized the lack of ethics in modern society.

Tawney, then an Oxford student, learned that when the Canon Law, that is to say, the law of the Church, was the law of the land there were high ethics in society. Tawney decided to study how society has passed down from the high ethics of the Canon Law to the no ethics of today. Tawney found out about the history of ethics of the last five hundred years is embodied in his book, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism. And because Archbishop Keating realized that our modern social order fails to feed the poor he founded in Oxford a Catholic Labor College.

And the Catholic Labor College conducted in Oxford has been going on for the last twenty-five years. At its last general meeting Cardinal Bourne declared that we are badly in need of Catholic social research.

If there had been more Catholic social research Catholics would not now pass the buck to the politicians. In a School of Social Studies we would be able to learn why things are what they are. In a School of Social Studies we would be able to learn how things would be if they were as they should be. In a School of Social Studies we would be able to learn how a path can be made from things as they are to things as they should be. Having no School of Social Studies we have no Catholic social program based on Catholic social thought.

Having no School of Social Studies, we try to put patches to the existing social order and call it a New Deal. Having no School of Social Studies. Having no School of Social Studies, we are not occupied in reconstructing the social order as the Holy Father wants us to be.

I agree with seven Bishops, three of whom are Archbishops, that the Communist criticism of modern rugged individualism is a sound criticism. I agree with seven Bishops, three of whom are Archbishops, that the main social aim of the Communist Party is a sound social aim.

I agree with seven Bishops, three of whom are Archbishops, that the Communists are not sound when they advocate class struggle in order to realize their sound social aim. I agree with the Apostolic Delegate when he advocates the practice of the Seven Corporal and Seven Spiritual Works of Mercy as the best practical means of making man human to man. To feed the hungry at a personal sacrifice is what God wants us to do.

To clothe the naked at a personal sacrifice is what God wants us to do. To shelter the homeless at a personal sacrifice is what God wants us to do. To instruct the ignorant at a personal sacrifice is what God wants us to do. The Holy Father asks us to reconstruct the social order. The social order was once reconstructed after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Irish scholars were the leaders in the reconstruction of the social order after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Through Round-Table Discussions scattered all over Europe as far as Constantinople the Irish scholars brought thought to the people. Through Houses of Hospitality the Irish scholars exemplified Christian charity. Through Fanning Communes the Irish scholars made workers out of scholars and scholars out of workers. Colleges and universities have failed to give their students a technique of leadership based on scholarship. And because colleges and universities have failed to make leaders out of their students, politicians propose to make bureaucrats out of them.

College professors have become so academic that their students refuse to be scholarly minded and consent to be politically minded. College professors have failed to train their students in a technique of leadership, so their students wish to be trained in a technique of dictatorship. In Cuba, Germany, China, Mexico, Italy, Russia, dictators have found their greatest support among college students eager for action.

Academic college professors are interested in thought, not in action. So we have on one hand thought without action and on the other hand action without thought. To impart Catholic thought and train in Catholic Action, such is the function of Catholic universities. Some way ought to be found to send Catholic workers to Catholic universities or to bring Catholic universities to Catholic workers. When Catholic scholars and Catholic workers become acquainted with each other Catholic workers win cease to be politically minded and begin to be scholarly minded.

When Catholic scholars are dynamic and not academic and Catholic workers are scholars and not politicians we will have dynamic Catholic Action. Yours for dynamic Catholic Action. They say that I am a radical. If I am a radical then I am not a liberal.

The future will be different if we make the present different. But to make the present different one must give up old tricks and start to play new tricks. But to give up old tricks and start to play new tricks one must be a fanatic.

Liberals are so liberal about everything that they refuse to be fanatical about anything. And not being able to be fanatical about anything, liberals cannot be liberators. They can only be liberals. Liberals refuse to be religious, philosophical or economic fanatics and consent to be the worst kind of fanatics, liberal fanatics. If I am a radical, then I am not a conservative.

Conservatives try to believe that things are good enough to be let alone. But things are not good enough to be let alone. Conservatives try to believe that the world is getting better every day in every way.

But the world is not getting better every day in every way. The world is getting worse every day in every way and the world is getting worse every day in every way because the world is upside down.

And conservatives do not know how to take the upside down and to put it right side up. When conservatives and radicals will come to an understanding they will take the upside down and they will put it right side up.

The order of the day is to talk about the social order. Liberals try to patch it and call it a New Deal. Socialists want a change, but a gradual change. Communists want a change, an immediate change, but a Socialist change. Communists in Russia do not build Communism, they build Socialism.

Communists want to pass from capitalism to Socialism and from Socialism to Communism. I want a change, and a radical change. I want a change from an acquisitive society to a functional society, from a society of go-getters to a society of go-givers.

Modern society has made the bank account the standard of values. When the bank account becomes the standard of values the banker has the power. When the banker has the power the technician has to supervise the making of profits.

When the banker has the power the politician has to assure law and order in the profit-making system. When the banker has the power the educator trains students in the technique of profit making. When the banker has the power the clergyman is expected to bless the profit-making system or to join the unemployed. When the banker has the power the Sermon on the Mount is declared unpractical. When the banker has the power we have an acquisitive, not a functional society.

When the Sermon on the Mount is the standard of values then Christ is the Leader. When Christ is the Leader the priest is the mediator. When Christ is the Leader the educator trains the minds of the pupils so that they may understand the message of the priest. When Christ is the Leader the technician devises ways and means for the economical production and distribution of goods. When Christ is the Leader the administrator administrates according to the directions from the technicians.

When Christ is the Leader we have a functional, not an acquisitive society. Boloney is boloney, no matter how you slice it, and rebellion is rebellion no matter when it happens, whether it is the religious rebellion of the 16th century or the political rebellion of the 18th century, or the economic rebellion of the 20th century. Someone said that the Catholic Church stands for rum, Romanism and rebellion. But the Catholic Church does not stand for rum, Romanism and rebellion. The Catholic Church stands, as Rome used to stand, for law and order.

The Catholic Church stands for the reunion of our separated brothers. The Catholic Church stands for the reconstruction, not the patching up, of the social order. The social order was constructed by the first Christians through the daily practice of the Seven Corporal and Seven Spiritual Works of Mercy.

To feed the hungry at a personal sacrifice, to clothe the naked at a personal sacrifice, to shelter the homeless at a personal sacrifice, to instruct the ignorant at a personal sacrifice; such were the works of the first Christians in times of persecution. The Catholic Worker proposes fighting Communism the way the first Christians fought pagan Romanism, through the works of mercy.

The Communists do not build Communism, they build Socia1ism. We have a simple solution for you: If this is your first time considering buying a paper from us, you're probably wondering what makes our website the best choice.

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